Determination of Proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Protocatechuic Acid on Glioma Cells
In this study, we investigated the morphological, cytotoxic, and apoptotic/necrotic effects activity of 0.5 to 3.5 mM protocatechuic acid (PCA)on rat (C6) and human (T98G) glioma cells.We observed that protocatechuic acid cause morphological changes in C6 cells as beginning from 2 mM concentration. The effects of PCA on cell proliferation are evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red (NR) assay. Its effect on cell viability is observed as beginning from doses 2 mM at 24 hr (p<0.001) and 1.5 mM at 48 hr (p<0.001). WhileIC50 values are calculated as 2.79 and 1.84 mM for 24 and 48 hr respectively according to MTT method; these values are calculated as 2.67 and 1.79 mM according to NR method. We determined that PCA doses did not any morphological and cytotoxic effects on T98G cells (p>0.05) two different duration periods. It is observed that chosen doses of PCA do not cause significantly any necrotic effect on C6 cells depending on dose and time; on the other hand, increase apoptotic effect. As a result; cell morphology, cell proliferation, apoptotic and necrotic effects of PCA by depending on doses and time are researched on T98G and C6 cells for the first time. In this study, we determined that PCA doses changed cell morphology, suppressed the cell proliferation and increased apoptotic effects in C6 cells.