Obtention of Haploid Plant in Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus and Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Species by Anther Culture Method
This research was conducted with Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus and Citrullus lanatus var. citroides species of watermelon in order to obtain haploid plants by anther culture method. In the experiment, 1 open-pollinated species (Halep Karası) and 1 hybrid cultivar (Crimson Tide) belonging to Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus subspecies and 2 genotypes of the Citrullus lanatus var. citroides subspecies (PI 296341 and PI 189225) were used. In anther culture applications, 2 mg/l 2.4-D + 90 g/l sucrose supplemented MS medium was used and 6- Benzylaminopurine (BAP) was put in different doses (1 and 1.5 mg/l). Additionally, spermidine (SPD) and putrescine (PUT) were added seperately and together to the media contents at different doses (500 and 1000 μM/l) to investigate the effect of polyamines. Fourteen different media combinations were evaluated in 2 different experiments. In the first experiment, flower buds were collected 1 day before anthesis and the anthers were stored at 32 °C for 2 days in dark condition and then cultured. In the second experiment, the buds were collected 2 days before anthesis and cultured without being subjected to pre-heat treatment. According to the results, anther development and callus formation were observed at varying rates on the basis of genotypes used in different medium. However, the influence of pre-heat treatment and ratio of callus formation were higher in Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus species. Even so, no transformation into plants was observed. The effect of polyamines (SPD and PUT) on anther culture in watermelon has not been clearly observed.