Ecological and Economical Aspects of Sustainable Development of Beekeeping
The sustainable development of beekeeping becomes possible only under conditions of balance between ecological and economical aspects of apiary business. The existing contradiction between the ecological and industrial sides is the main cause of the crisis of modern beekeeping, while the saturation of markets puts quality of honey at the forefront. The technological intervention in the natural development of bee families leads to a decrease in their productive qualities but the low technological level in the apiary also negatively affects the livelihoods of bees and their ecological indicators. Ukraine has significant potential of the beekeeping industry being one of the top exporters to the EU countries but imperfection of the legal framework and the lack of technological abilities are the reasons for the low honey quality because of high quote of individual and small commercial apiaries in the total production. The study of physics-chemical indicators of quality of honey in samples taken from different regions of Ukraine showed that the average values generally meet the requirements for the content of mass fraction of water, mass fraction of reducing sugars, and mass fraction of sucrose, diastase number, content of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), proline to domestic and international standards. The indicators of honey quality studied according to the size of the apiary business registration apiary divided into four main groups: individual, small, medium and large suggests that samples from the individual and small producers do not fully complied with the current standards of quality.